Ecological tourism in Qinghai - Commentary
A commentary on the development of ecotourism in Qinghai Province
Ecotourism is produced against the effects of traditional tourism on the environment and advocating a new approach to tourism because it runs through a people-oriented thought was embodied in the concept of scientific development in the tourism industry. Accelerate the development of ecological tourism in Qinghai not only beneficial to optimize the structure of natural eco-environment and tourism products, and for increasing awareness, strengthening tourism in Qinghai province “enriching” function, speed up establishing province by ecological strategies has important practical significance.
Eco-tourism and its characteristics
“Ecological tourism” is the International Union for conservation of nature the term Mexico expert xiebeiluosi·LAsi Kerala Swiss first used in 1983, and in 1986 Mexico seminar on environment to be officially recognized. In accordance with the ecological tourism society 1992 on ecological tourism made of defined, the terminology main including three layer meaning: a is ecological tourism is a special of tourism forms, is has special purpose of tourism activities; II is ecological tourism of object not limitations Yu regional of landscape, and scenery (as mountain, and water, and biological resources,), also including regional of human heritage, and Humanities landscape, (as nature reserve, and forest park, and scenery scenic area,); three is ecological tourism is in traditional of mass tourism and natural tourism of Foundation Shang development up of, more attention and natural landscape of coordination consistent and organic contact. Can say is ecological tourism is the pursuit of human ecological civilization of advanced spiritual enjoyment of travel.
Compared with traditional tourism, eco-tourism has the following characteristics: 1, eco-tourism destinations are some of the protection of the integrity of natural ecosystems and culture, access to unique experiences for participants, which has the characteristics of original and unique nature; Miniaturization of 2 stressed the scale of tourism, ecological tourism, qualified within the tolerance range, and quality of tourist visitors, without causing much damage to tourism; 31 encourages eco-tourism “interactive” participation, need tourist’s extensive contact with nature, into the local natural ecological environment, fully appreciate, enjoy the ecological tourist area of the natural ecological environment, and actively act as a protector of humanistic and ecological environment; 41 is a responsible eco-tourism travel, these responsibilities include the protection of tourism resources of responsibility and the responsibility of the sustainable development of tourism; 51 eco-tourism is a high-quality tourism, tourists generally has a high cultural qualities, by viewing the natural landscape, get the knowledge of nature, culture; 61 tourists and tour operators in eco-tourism have highlighted outstanding natural qualities, sightseeing activities centered on the natural ecological character, tourism facilities needed for a simple, low cost investment in infrastructure, equivalent to only about one-fourth of traditional tourism.
The advantages and problems of eco-tourism development in Qinghai province
Qinghai as characterized by literary landscape mountain landscape tourist resource collection area and the collection of historical and cultural context of cultural tourism resources district, developing eco-tourism potential is huge. In recent years to promote the construction of ecological environment of Qinghai province as guide, pay attention to combining economic development and ecological protection, focus on building a green economy ecosystem, effectively promoting the province’s ecological, economic, environmental and social harmonious development, laid a good foundation for developing ecological tourism.
(A) To cultivate a number of tourist products
One is to create tourism products. Formation has to natural ecological and Humanities spirit perfect combination of classic masterpieces—ring Qinghai Lake scenery and sports tourism ring; to cool, and health, and ecological, and Humanities, and tourism for rich connotation of ring Xining “China summer are” tourism ring; to Tibetan railway for ties, to large tourism of thought development Qinghai-Tibet plateau unique of history culture, and bold of shanhe Lake, and rich of Plateau ecological, and rich of national style, and mystery of religious culture, tourism boutique—Tibetan railway world roof tourism with; to guide for core, to “QingQing Yellow River” for mainline, speed up development has Yellow River coastal of natural scenery, and salar style, and hot springs convalescence, and religious culture, tourism products, formation has Yellow River culture tourism with; while, development connection Dragon sheep Gorge, and laxiwa, and Nepalese that, and Li Jiaxia, and public primary Gorge, Cascade power station of Yellow River upstream hydropower Pearl industrial tourism with. Actively cultivate to yushu, banma, year baoyushi forest in the Lake, A’nyemaqen Shan scenic area focusing on dig plateau peculiar characteristics of natural landscape and culture, actively promoting the cultural landscape in yushu and “three-River source” Declaration of world natural and cultural heritage, focusing on development of tourism, ecology, research, novelty, expeditions, mountaineering tourism products, such as eco-tourism in the three rivers district.
Second, creating the ecological and leisure tourism. Full using unique of Plateau scenery, and fine of vegetation, and water and air, highlight ecological features and minority dwellings of elegant comfortable style, established has to Qinghai Lake, and guide, and gold and Silver Beach, and mutual aid, and xunhua dialect, and hercynian, for focus of group ecological tourism Leisure holiday area, implementation has by past traditional of “point” to tablets area development change, by single of sightseeing tourism to meeting, and holiday, and leisure tour phase combination change.
Third is to build City tourism. Natural scenery, history and culture, in accordance with the requirements of modern harmony among cultures, complement each other, organize city construction, implementation, Golmud, Xining city overall style improvement, green, and node construction projects, supporting urban service functions, increase points detain a guest, making this the new growth point for the development of tourism economy.
Four is to build sports and leisure tourism. Project carriers, actively promoting tourist travel to the resort, sport, experience-oriented travel changes, high starting point plan, quality introduced around Qinghai Lake International Road cycling race, the ultimate challenge of speedily crossing the Yellow River in Qinghai province of China, Qinghai plateau climbing World Cup tourism projects, such as, increased participation, recreational tourism project and enriched tourism content.
(B) Infrastructure enhancement
Nearly five years, the huge investment in Qinghai province, accumulated investment in fixed assets of 18.7715 trillion yuan. Highway mileage up to 5.13 million km, the highway from scratch, to the development of 215 km/h, the “two transverse three longitudinal and three road” skeleton of the completion of the basic road network. Opening of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, Lanqing railway double track electrification project is nearing completion, Shibaki, Sigma section of double track and electrification of the railway project and the three rivers in yushu airport started construction, Xining and Golmud airport improvement project is complete. Gongbo Gorge, Nina, and laxiwa, Jishi, and other large and medium hydropower station, geermu, Chase China electric power, gas power plant and Guan to 750,000 volts Ulan to Golmud 330,000 kV transmission project, transformation of rural power grids and yushu State power grid construction, and other key power projects have been completed or under construction, the basic realization of large power grid under the cover of each power. Heiquan reservoir and inventory built road reservoir, construction started “Tai Ji Huang” water diversion main Canal, North of huangshui main channel poor irrigation, a number of key water conservancy projects for phase I. Surpassed 1 million fixed telephone, mobile communication users surpassed 2 million, achieving all the towns and villages on the phone. Steady increase in the level of urbanization, a number of roads, flood control, water supply and drainage, waste facilities built in cities and towns such as sewage, coal-to gas use, constantly improve the tourism infrastructure, integrated reception capacities further enhanced.
(C) Tourism management system innovation promoting
Set up a leading group for the development of tourism industry in Qinghai province, strengthen integrated decision-making and supervision and management of tourism development in the province, unified management and unified planning, unified construction, unified law enforcement, marketing, in scenic access to enact and strictly enforce a tour operator qualification, environmental protection and other aspects of the system. Also, in accordance with the management of tourism resources by the State, Government, business ideas, in 2007 on the implementation of tourism development in laoye mountain scenic spot assignment. Township tourism development planning and developing counties, careful project planning, packing, appeal to the social capital development, focus on exploration of tourism development “State private” new ways.
(D) Tourism and agricultural implements reasonable “grafting”
Adhere to the tourism and agriculture reasonable “grafted” to develop farm leisure tourism, pollution-free agricultural products, travel goods, focusing on implementation of Haidong agriculture ecological sightseeing, constantly specification farm ecological resort near scenic tourist reception points. Developed in a Cordyceps sinensis, rhubarb tea herbs, Sea buckthorn, Plateau as the representative of the high quality of kiwifruit fruit, characterized by quality flowers such as tulips and other tourism commodities. At the same time, actively guide and support the biological Park in Xining to invest.
However, judging from the present development situation, as a new idea and model of the tourism development, eco-tourism in Qinghai province has several outstanding problems to be resolved the following:
1, on the development of ecological tourism awareness issues. “Tourism is a smokeless industry” concept is still relatively popular, and in the process of development, some places emphasis on developing tourism resources, impact on the environment and resources at the expense of travel itself destroyed. When the tourists as inexhaustible tourism resources, unlimited wealth to consumption, on their gaps in knowledge and behaviour properly, will cause damage on the part of the tourist resources and pollution, increased and even intensify the contradiction between resources, environment and tourism.
2, professional programming, system of eco-tourism. High starting point, high standard of planning, is a prerequisite for sustainable development of ecological tourism and creating the basis for tourism. However, during development, attention to itself and for tourism-related industries in many parts of the layout planning, to the neglect of ecological construction planning. On the landscape design, did not fully reflect the human and ecological design, resulting in many of the buildings and atmosphere of the natural environment is not coordinated
3, scientific management mechanism. At present, the right to ownership, planning, development, in many spots set in one of the right, protection and development of its resources rely solely on financial investment and operating income, resources cannot be implement the most effective protection and long-term development, tourism management subject lacking vigor and vitality, there has been some resources spent heavily in renovation, some because of disorderly development resources long idle, and so many other issues. Infrastructure construction of 41 financial. Developing eco-tourism must have secured appropriate infrastructural investment, but owing to financial constraints, lead to scenic landscape more weak infrastructure, especially transportation, sewage facilities relatively backward, contradiction of tourism development and ecological environment protection more prominent. 51 Professional problems of eco-tourism. True meaning of eco-tourism have specialized requirements on product design, involving tourism, ecology, environmental science and economics, interdisciplinary knowledge, technology is more complicated. But for now can understand Knowledge Ecology and tourism, while correctly grasp the connotation of ecological tourism professionals and serious lack of management talent.
Three basic ideas for eco-tourism development, accelerate Qinghai and suggestions
(A) The high location, crafted of eco-tourism development planning
Stick to scientificity and feasibility of the plan and focus on planning ahead, in guiding ideology firmly establish the concept of people-oriented resources to environmental protection, depending on the organic constituents of human nature, fully reflects the ecological idea of heaven; on the specific plan, to enhance the interaction between environment and humanistic care, achieve harmony between man and nature. Strengthening on province tourism resources value, and market potential and tourism development will will caused of environment effect, aspects for investigation and assessment, and in on all tourist area of geological resources, and biological resources and involves environment quality of various resources for seriously of investigation of Foundation Shang, in accordance with the moderate, and ordered, and min levels development of principles, in accordance with the ecological tourism of planning mode, developed meet ecological tourism target of province ecological tourism development planning and land using planning, and landscape planning, and water resources and energy planning, and environmental protection planning, various special planning, implementation overall planning and special planning of convergence unified.
In specific projects, to strictly control the various service facilities in scenic spots from the ecological perspective of the size, quantity, colors, materials, shape and style, advocated mainly to natural landscapes, local, under King saith, embody the beauty of nature. Within the scenic artificial scenes, including some of the services of facilities planning, overview of global, choose appropriately. For some facilities, in addition to the necessary rest seats, outside the small bridge, public toilets, you minimize the artificial structures, minimize human disturbance and damage to the natural environment.
On the transformation of tourism planning and design of products and innovation, to grasp the nature of special tourism resources in Qinghai province, find in tourist resources of different cultural identities, packaging rendered its surprising unique quality, enables tourism product is both beautiful and colourful and full of charm, is a unified brand and have a different temperament. In art forms and manipulation Shang to seriously learning and reference advanced area tourism planning construction Shang of ecological concept, and environmental consciousness and the construction art, to planning integration ecological tourism resources, carefully build ecological tourism plate; to Qinghai Lake, and bird Island, and Tower er Temple, and rivers source, and Kunlun mountain, and Erich Paulun Beach, and Hoh XIL, and Atomic City, and Chai Da wood ambitious salt bridge, and balon international hunting field, advantage resources for Foundation, play resources of monopoly sexual role, highlight a “special” Word, mining its profound of culture connotation; to resources for relying on, to culture for mainline, pursuant to products of associated of, increased products combination of depth and width, increased ecological tourism products of connotation.
(B) Innovative mechanisms, improve the level of configuration and operation of tourism resources
Tourism resources in implementing “State, government regulation, business” separation of powers, in strict accordance with relevant laws and regulations of the State to ensure national ownership of tourism resources. Under the principle of integration of effective protection and rational utilization, according to the nature of various scenic spot, by distinguishing among differing cases to determine a different mode, the kanbula, Salt Lake City resources rank higher more mature tourism resources, various conditions, the existing management system and operational mechanism for reform, innovation, realizing the right to manage and operate separately. Still needs substantial investment in supporting infrastructure in three rivers, Qinghai Lake tourist resources, in accordance with the protection of tourism resources and their characteristics and the principle of sustainable use, bold opening, attracting investment, through the transfer of the right, the introduction of capital, technology and management, enhance the level of development, protection and management of scenic spots. The operation rights transfer, insist on impartial, scientific method, and program operators of tourism resource development of selection, good credit and big strength, concept of new business acquisition and management rights, ensure development level, with clear responsibilities and rights in the form of contract, prevent the emergence of new phenomena of integration of government administration with enterprise. At the same time, strengthening investment and the effective monitoring of the conduct of the operators, and help ensure the rational use of resources.
(C) Relying on excellent eco-tourism resources, forming a strong brand
Specific told, can with ring Qinghai Lake international highway bike match and China summer are of brand, while combination Qinghai Lake, and Tower er Temple, famous scenic (point) of sightseeing tour and leisure holiday tour, through multiple channels, and multiple media, packaging publicity Qinghai province of ecological tourism, in national and world range within build famous of ecological tourism brand, and strengthening and around tourism institutions and travel agency of cooperation, formation ecological tourism hot. Is the “summer in China” quality tourist area. Effective utilization of scenic spots and the city as one of the advantages, improve infrastructure, enhanced service features, rich tourism product, turn it into a summer resort in China, land of the cultural heritage and heritage collections, Tulip and Tibetan Carpet art exhibition land of building after Xining City tourism an important carrier of the garden. Comprehensive development and show around the Kunlun culture, culture of liuwan, card culture. Speeding up the river and the upper reaches of the Yellow River, construction of water sports and entertainment, sports, into a catchment of cultural experience, entertainment, dining, shopping, accommodation in one of the cultural tourism area. Second is the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway travel roof of the world with eco-tour and religious fine tourist area. Integration of tourism resources along unified planning, unified construction, to build eco-cultural experience along cultural and religious, collection sightseeing, leisure, vacation, travel, adventure as one of the excellent tourist area. Three is the “three-River source” ecological quality tourist area. Actively cultivate to yushu, banma, year baoyushi forest in the Lake, A’nyemaqen Shan scenic area focusing on dig plateau peculiar characteristics of natural landscape and culture, focusing on development of tourism, ecology, research, novelty, expeditions, mountaineering tourism products, such as eco-tourism in the three rivers district.
(D) Increase investment, accelerate the construction of tourism infrastructure
Explore tourism investment market-mechanism, play a pilot role of good government investment, according to the “who invest, who benefit” principle, the establishment of the “multi-channel financing diversification, multiple-way cooperation,” the investment system for tourism, attract foreign investors and private capital to participate in eco-tourism development, strengthening the construction of infrastructure such as transportation, environmental protection, health. Is a smooth flow of tourism projects. Accelerate the pace of sanjiangyuan airport construction, space distance shortened to three rivers; blue green railway double track, built West Railway double track; fight for Nathan Xining airport railway, the completion of the second phase expansion, huatugou airport, form a complete, stable and convenient transportation system, energy support system and network system and further improve the situation of traffic in the city centre area. Second, to improve the tourism infrastructure. Under construction barrier and plateau of Western China ecological tourism resort province requirements, increase exhibition, culture, entertainment, sports, fitness facilities, playgrounds, walking Street services building, enhance the regional transport, communications, hotels, restaurants, park facilities, such as grades. Further speed up the planning and building of communications networks, all scenic cable, seamless mobile communication coverage. Third, further optimizing environment of tourism. Continued implementation of the urban scenery modification works, formed with local national style of architecture in cities and towns. Vigorously implement the urban greening, cleaning, landscaping, lighting engineering, build cities and towns-bright. At the same time, strengthening on the city, along the scenic and the surrounding towns, village renovation, renovation and construction, undertake to provide scenic “eating, housing, transportation, travel, shopping, entertainment” service, relieve pressure on resources carrying capacity in scenic spots, and gradually build “King tour, King lived outside” spatial layout of tourism development. Full use of the advantages of the ecological environment of Qinghai province and Qinghai Lake International Road cycling race, the Yellow River in Qinghai, China International advantage brands such as ultimate challenge, insisted on using concept developing sightseeing agriculture tourism and farmhouse, focus on creating “one village one color, one village one product” farmhouse boutique, promoting interaction between agriculture and tourism, urban and rural interaction, form a new pattern of eco-tourism.
(E) Build environment, and realizing eco-tourism sustainable development
1, enhancing ecological education. The ecological education and moral education into national education plans, in the primary, secondary education in ecological protection and construction of additional educational content, and slogans to form of advocacy, media campaigns, seminars, strengthen ecological environment education society, Who in their natural position, dealing with good and natural relationship, attention to and enhance the sustainable use of natural resources. At the same time, should also strengthen the guidance and constraints of visitor behavior.
2, enhance environmental comprehensive renovation. Unswervingly scenic environment comprehensive improvement work, solve travel-related security, order, health and epidemic prevention in the market, “the three wastes” highlighted issues such as emissions. Do well in cities and scenic environment-friendly disposal of garbage, sewage, in scenic spots, hotels and urban residents to promote clean energy, strict control of dust and noise emissions, protect air and water quality in Qinghai province. At the same time, enhance the environmental protection act, the forestry law, and the heritage conservation Act, the law on protection of wild fauna and flora closely related to the tourism promotion and implementation of environmental protection laws and regulations. On development of ecological reserves, according to environmental law, provisions which parts can be developed, which prohibited the development and the development of the scale, open season and number of reception and so on. On the illegal practices of natural resources, stepping up law enforcement so that they take appropriate civil and criminal liability. At the same time, further establish and improve the promotion of eco-tourism development and ecological environment protection rules and regulations, improving the ecological environment quality monitoring and reporting system, the system of supervision by public opinion, protect and optimize the tourism ecological environment of Qinghai.
3, to prevent blind development, seeking sustainable returns on investment. The one hand, in the early stage of development should be to scenic spots facility construction through technical means in accordance with environmental protection requirements on the other, to make full use of technological means, scientific community set tourism trend of environmental quality, capacity, or capacity, control number, avoiding environmental pollution, prevent the blind development, seek continued investment efficiency, ensure the efficient use of resources and the environment and the effective protection. To be guided by the principles of ecological economics and ecological aesthetics limited tour model development. Limit size of tour mode to determine according to the environmental carrying capacity. Due to the bearing capacity of change with the seasons, but also with other factors, such as tourist behavior patterns, facility design and dynamic characteristics, destination management, environmental change community attitudes. Each developed a tourist attraction, we must seriously study its unique environmental features, prediction and evaluation of environmental impact and to ultimately determine the right type and level of its carrying capacity, and to environmental protection as a basis for planning, strengthening sustainable management, make the tourist’s negative impact on the environment to reduce the environmental carrying capacity range. Meanwhile, eco-tourism in the same manner in accordance with environmental needs regular adjusting tourist routes, enabling resources within the tourist area to “respite” opportunities, extended recession cycle of resources.
4, high-quality talent team of eco-tourism. Eco-tourism is a new way of special tourism, you need talents with high quality professional management and service, they promote eco-tourism service quality, to promote eco-tourism destination image, build brand has an important role. Should use its tourism institutions, training courses, seminars, academic conferences, please come in various forms and talent, alia, sending learning professionals trained in a large number of eco-tourism, strengthen the study on the theory and planning of ecotourism, providing talent guarantee for fulfilling sustainable development of tourism in Qinghai province. At the same time, should establish specialized eco-tourism travel agency as soon as possible. Travel service is a contact link of tourists and tourism product. Due to the particularities of eco-tourism, tour guide services for ecotourists must be with a broad range of expertise and good practice, while travel agencies must have rich experience in eco-tourism business combinations and related facilities, which challenged traditional travel agency large business function. In the era of requirements of eco-tourism is becoming increasingly apparent, the formation of travel agency specializes in eco-tourism marketing and management.
(F) Accelerate the development of eco-tourism industry, promote industrialization of eco-tourism
Development of eco-tourism must implement the scientific concept of development, the strategy of sustainable development, eco-industry development, prosperity and circular economy and ecological province closely and create. Reality requires the development of tourism industry in Qinghai province is eco-tourism must be gradually popularized, must work closely with the eco-industrial, ecological agriculture, eco-industries combined, to expand its scientific connotation, in order to achieve industrialization. In the process of developing eco-tourism industry, with special emphasis on implementing the scientific development view, the key is people’s overall development, goal is to achieve coordination of natural, social and economic development. Combined with the current development situation of China’s eco-tourism, developing industry in Qinghai province ecological tourism is the only way of realizing industrialization of eco-tourism. Because for tourism destinations area,, it implementation has ecological industry, and ecological technology and ecological civilization construction results of tourism value, get has social statistics, promote has tourist destinations of sustainable development; for tourist area,, conducive to learning advanced area of ecological industry, and ecological technology and ecological management mode, strengthening area inter-culture technical exchange and cooperation, promote tourist to ecological technology of promotion and universal, and ecological industry and entire regional of sustainable development. In particular, developing eco-tourism industry through the following countermeasures: to intensify its awareness, promoting the development of ecological tourism industry, thereby promoting the development of circular economy and ecological industry; conducting systematic scientific theory study on eco-tourism industry, to provide scientific support to the development of eco-tourism industry; construction industry eco-tourism certification system, implementation of the pilot demonstration project; a sound coordination mechanisms, achieve maximum comprehensive benefits of eco-tourism.
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